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Traditional Custodians of Illawarra Land
Local communities of Aboriginal people were the original inhabitants and Traditional Custodians of Illawarra Land. Their dialect is a variant of the Dharawal language. Before European settlement, the Aboriginal people of the region lived in small family groups with complicated social structures and close associations with specific areas. Suburb boundaries do not reflect the cultural boundaries of the local Aboriginal community. Traditional Custodians today are descendants of the original inhabitants and have ongoing spiritual and cultural ties to the Land and waterways where their ancestors lived.
In 1825 James Stares Spearing was given a promise of grant for two properties of 1000 acres each, on the slopes of Mount Keira. These properties were called Paulsgrove. In 1835 the Spearings sold Paulsgrove to Colonel John Leahy and Leahy changed the name to Mount Keira Estate. According to Henderson, Colonel Leahy "renamed Paulsgrove after the nearby 'Mt Keera'." The grants were finally issued in 1841 to Robert and Charles Campbell. Keira is an aboriginal name meaning large lagoon or high mountain. The aborigines called the mountain "Djera" meaning wild turkey.
John Hubert Plunkett and 'Keelogues' later known as 'Gundarin'
West of Wollongong and near Mount Keira, an area of 1,280 acres was granted to John Hubert Plunkett on March 12, 1837. This was in virtue of a promise of a grant to Gregory Blaxland dated 5 March 1830, and was called 'Keelogues' or 'Gundarin'. (Lindsay, 1994)
James Stares Spearing and 'Paulsgrove' later known as 'Mount Keira Estate'
Lying between the grant to Mr Plunkett and the Town of Wollongong is an area of 1000 acres which was promised as an additional grant by Governor Brisbane in September 1825. This was owned by Mr James Stares Spearing who had an excellent farm and orchard, over 15 acres, under cultivation. The Para Creek ran through this property which was known as 'Paulsgrove' and later known as 'Mount Keira Estate'. (Lindsay, 1994, Cousins 1994)
On his arrival in Australia Spearing received promises of two grants, each 1000 acres, from Governor Brisbane. The first grant extended roughly from Foley's Road to half way up Mount Keira, and from the Technical College in Lysaght Street, North Wollongong to Wiseman Park. The adjoining portion extended from Cross Roads to Mount Keira township and south almost to Figtree Hotel. (McDonald, 1988)
James Stares Spearing of 'Paulsgrove'
The 1828 census shows that James Stares Spearing "came free" to Australia on the ship Harvey in 1825. He was then about 47 years old.
On his arrival he received from Governor Brisbane promises of two grants, each 1000 acres, which became portions seven and eight of the Parish of Wollongong and are described previously under 'Land Grants'.
James Spearing soon took possession of these estates which he named 'Paulsgrove'. He built a home near the north-western end of Yellagong Street, West Wollongong and by late 1826 he was well established. (McDonald, 1988).
A statement was found in a report in the N.S.W. Calendar and Directory of 1835, describing settlement as follows: "Several persevering colonists have laid out much money there (Illawarra) under considerable disadvantage. Mr Spearing has opened a very fine tract at great expense; this gentleman's garden is celebrated for the fruit sent from it to Sydney." (Lindsay 1994, p. 20)
In 1827 Spearing married Harriet Overington to whom a grant of 1920 acres was promised. This was Portion 113, Parish of Wonona, usually referred to as 'Bellambi 'or 'Palamba'. This property became included in the Spearing estate.
The 1828 census credited Spearing with 400 acres cleared and 250 acres cultivated, 5 horses and 50 horned cattle. He also had a flock of 750 sheep which was the only flock in the district. He became the principal agriculturalist of the district in the early 1830s.
James Spearing left the Illawarra in 1835 and the 'Paulsgrove' properties were conveyed to Lt. Col. John Thomas Leahy who changed the name to 'Mount Keera'. The grants for the property were finally issued in 1841 to Robert and Charles Campbell who subdivided the estate into a large number of small lots which were sold over many years. After leaving 'Paulsgrove', James Spearing lived in Sydney for a time before returning to England and setting up as a gentleman. (McDonald, 1988)
John Plunkett of 'Keelogues'
Gregory Blaxland had a property of 1280 acres promised to him in 1830. John Hubert Plunkett secured this grant, and the deed was issued to him on 12th March, 1837. Mr Plunkett was a member of a distinguished family of Irish patriots and had been the Solicitor General for the Colony.
John Plunkett took a prominent part in local affairs, particularly in issues involving the aborigines, education and navigation. He was the Superintendent of National Education in New South Wales and he was a member of the Committee of Management of the Illawarra Steam Packet Company. (Cousins, 1994)
He sold the estate for 13,000 pounds four years after its purchase to a Mr Wood who was the first chairman of the Illawarra Agricultural Society.
James Shoobert was a pioneer in coal mining at Mount Keira. He was a retired Sea Captain and a Justice of the Peace who also discharged public duties as a Magistrate. He opened two tunnels on the slopes of Mount Keira a short distance below the present mine and named them 'Albert'. On the 27th August 1849 the first load of coal was transported down from Mount Keira to Wollongong in horse drawn coal carts. "The coal carts formed part of a procession led by a band and followed by horsemen. The procession also included the owner James Shoobert, miners and a large gathering of townspeople." (Spires 1990, p.1)
The first shipment of coal was in the steamer "William the Fourth" and it soon found a market with the millers and manufacturers of Sydney.
On the 18th February 1856 the Mount Keira House and Grounds were put up for auction and sold. The Illawarra Mercury on 28 January, 1856 advertised the property as: "Valuable and Very Desirable Freehold Property near Wollongong comprising The Mount Keira House and Grounds the Mount Keira and Albert Coal Mines, Cleared Farms, sites for ornamental cottages."
"Mount Keira House and Grounds. Comprising 80 acres of cleared land, watered by a creek which has never been known to fail, including the splendid garden, orchard and vineyard, planted with the choicest fruit trees and vines, now in full bearing and great perfection. The cottage is commodious, and suitable for a large family and has been occupied up to 1st January by a girls school." (Illawarra Mercury, 1856)
The 'Paulsgrove Diary' clearly illustrates the early agricultural industry at Mount Keira. It was written by an overseer for Mr Spearing who was living at 'Paulsgrove' in 1833. "The diary shows the acreage to have been, in 1833 and 1834, about 40 acres. The hillside at Mount Keira had fields of wheat, maize, barley, oats, rye, rape, turnips, onions, potatoes, peas and tobacco. There was also a well kept orchard containing peach, apricot, nectarine, plum and pear trees, as well as grape vines. There was also a large pig run. There were two watermills on Para Creek, running through the property. These were later replaced by a windmill." (Cousins 1994, p.87)
Mr Spearing had 20 convicts at 'Paulsgrove'. The diary records their daily tasks as being ploughing the fields, sowing, reaping, grinding the grain at the watermill, pulling out stumps, cross burning, and burning off generally. They also drove sheep and cattle. There was also a blacksmith, a shoemaker and a tailor on the estate.
Mr Spearing sent quantities of wheat, pork, maize, potatoes and whale oil to Sydney. The whale was washed ashore at Bellambi in 1833. The shipping was done by two 14 tonners the 'Bee' and the 'Sarah', sometimes from Wollongong, sometimes from Bellambi. There were no stores in the Illawarra at the time so the Captains of the trading ships acted as agents buying supplies in Sydney for Illawarra settlers. (Cousins, 1994)
The Osborne Wallsend Colliery - now Kemira Colliery
The Kemira Colliery is the oldest producing coal mine in Australia. It was opened in 1857 by William Robson for its owner Henry Osborne. The mine worked the Bulli Seam for the first time on record and the brickwork over the early tunnel is still visible next to the Mount Keira Portal.
On the 16th April, 1857, 3.5 tons of Keira coal was carted to the wharf at Belmore Basin by bullock team, to be transported to Sydney in the S.S. Illawarra. The Illawarra recorded the event as follows: "We have much pleasure in recording the perfect success of the trial of the new coal from the mine at Mount Keira, henceforth we understand to be called 'Osborne Wallsend'" (Spires, 1990)
The management of the mine was very satisfied with its prospects and in May an advertisement in the Mercury appeared asking for 20 teams to convey coal from the mine to the wharf at 6/- per ton. By September the coal mine was in operation and 150 tons had been consumed in Wollongong alone. Also 60 tons a week were used by the steamers and a considerable quantity was sent to Sydney. Keira coal gained a reputation for being superior to any other coal. (Cousins, 1994)
During its earliest stages mining at Mount Keira was fairly primitive, as was its method of delivery to the wharf. It was hauled by bullock teams down the steep Mount Keira track and old road. As the mine progressed a Main and Tail Rope Haulage installation brought coal to the surface and this early development included a skip incline. Henry Osborne, noting that hauling coal by bullock dray to the wharf was less than efficient, petitioned the Government to be allowed to build a tramway from the mine to the harbour.
Upon Henry Osborne's death in 1859, the Osborne Wallsend Coal Company was formed. Members of the company were William Robson, William Jackson, John Nixon and Andrew Tulip. The company owned two steamers, the 'Kurrara' and the 'Kanabooka' and the company was formed after arranging a 25 year lease from the Osbornes.
In 1867, Tulip, Nixon and Jackson sold their interest in Osborne Wallsend Colliery to Robson and Spiers. Four years later Robson and Spiers retired and the mine reverted back to the Osborne family. The Osborne's further developed the mine and also erected several coke ovens producing coke using slack from the colliery.
In the 1870s the reputation of the Mount Keira coal was spreading and large shipments were made from Sydney to India, China and other parts of Asia. In 1833 a new ventilation shaft was sunk.
During the 1870s and 1880s work at the mine was irregular and flags were raised at Flagstaff Point and Flagstaff Hill when colliers arrived to call the miners to work. "Under these conditions overall growth of output was slow and at the turn of the century the area still had a general rural atmosphere. Most of the mineworkers were local born and part time farmers. A coal boom in the late eighties saw men brought in from European countries, and houses were built closely adjacent to the mine so that these people could be housed." (Spires, 1990)
Mount Keira Road
In April 1834 the Governor, Major-General Sir Richard Bourke, visited the Illawarra in reply to a petition presented to him by a number of inhabitants asking for roads and safe harbours in the district. Surveyor General Mitchell set about implementing the Major-General's instructions to open the district by road and to improve its communication with the Sydney market.
As a result of Bourke's visit Mitchell planned the Mount Keira Road, which partially followed O'Brien's Road but provided an easier descent into the district by way of Mount Keira, coming out at West Wollongong at the cross roads. This road followed the present Mount Keira Road and was the main approach to the coast for many years.
In 1834 Mitchell wrote to the Colonial Secretary "Mt. Keera is the hill behind Mr Spearing's land, and the situation being almost desirable for a passage to the Illawarra both with respect to that of most of the farms and Sydney and also Wollongong. I examined the ground, and although it is covered with thick brush I succeeded in marking a line by which an easy and immediate ascent may be made without much labour, there being little rock in the way." (Marshall 1963, p.7)
The Mount Keira Road and other coastal roads were laid out in 1835-1836 by convict labour.
In the early days of its operation the coal from the Osborne Wallsend Colliery was hauled by bullock teams down the steep Mount Keira track and old road. Henry Osborne petitioned the Government to be allowed to build a tramway from the mine to the harbour. He was allowed to build part of it and the tramway terminated twelve chains west of the heart of the Princes Highway. A further petition was made by the Osborne Wallsend Coal Company to extend the tramway to the Belmore Basin. The petition was granted and an Act of Parliament cited.
The tramroad was opened in May, 1861 and "commenced at the foot of the incline, extending over and through lands of the late Henry Osborne passing under a reserved road near Macquarie Street, leading through the Mount Keira estate, and through the lands of Andrew Thompson and extending through land known as "Bustle Farm"…..and terminating at a point four chains and fifty links north-west of the north-west corner of Harbour Street. Thousands of tons of coal was hauled along this tramroad to the wharf at Belmore Basin by horse teams." (Spires 1990, p.7)
In 1878 the horse teams used for hauling coal along the tramroad to the wharf were replaced by steam locomotives. These locomotives, the Keira No.1 and Keira No. 2. were the first locomotives to work on the South Coast. They were ordered by Frank Osborne of the Osborne Wallsend colliery and shipped in 1878. They ran for 8 years before the New South Wales Government Railway between Sydney and Wollongong was opened. For the whole of their service they worked between the screens at the foot of the incline, and Wollongong, including Wollongong Harbour. The locomotives ceased running in 1954 when the line was closed. (Spires, 1990)
Mount Keira - Historic buildings
Location: South east corner of Osborne Park, Cliff Road, Wollongong East
The remains of the Tramway Bridge that was built to transport coal from Mount Keira Osborne Wallsend Mine to steamships in the Wollongong Harbour. This portion of the line officially opened on 29/9/1864. The tressles are intact and in fair condition but the bridge decking is missing. (City of Wollongong Heritage Study, 1991)
Address: 2/5 Allen Street. Mount Keira
This is a two storey home built along simple Georgian lines. The lower floor is constructed of solid freestone blocks, on the upper floor sandstock bricks were used. It has corner stones of sandstone and walls 18 inches thick. The interior was originally cedar and at one stage there was an attic window. (Ali, c1981)
Address: Mount Keira Road, Mount Keira
This school is located on land donated by J & F Osborne in 1875. It is a Gothic Revival style of building built of freestone. The roof was originally shingles but these have been replaced with corrugated iron. The exterior has had no additions but the interior has been modified. (Ali, c1981)
In 1877 Mr Mansfield, the Government's architect, was asked to prepare plans for a freestone school building to accommodate 110 pupils, with a teacher's residence of four rooms and a kitchen. Mr George Osborne's tender was accepted and work was finished in November 1877. (Mount Keira Public School Centenary Booklet, 1961)
The residence for the headmaster of the Mount Keira School was erected alongside the newly constructed stone Mount Keira Public School. The cottage was constructed from freestone, the roof was originally shingles that were later replaced with tile like material. The front verandah has been enclosed. (Ali, c1981)
Mount Keira - Environment
Mount Keira is 469 metres above sea level, and it is characterised by the Illawarra Escarpment landscape. The natural beauty of Mount Keira gives an unspoiled backdrop to the City of Wollongong. Mount Keira is part of the Illawarra Escarpment. The vegetation is made up of a mixture of rainforest (closed forest) and sclerophyll forest (open forest). Early logging removed most of the oldest and largest tall forest trees in the area but there is a stand of Turpentines "as tall as sixty metres and over two metres in diameter" near Mount Keira. (Cox & Outteridge, 1990; Environment Illawarra, 1992)
Mount Keira, and the Illawarra, are important phyto-geographical areas. Mount Keira is a crossover point with a number of species reaching their northern and southern limits within the area. Those at their northern limits are temperate species such as the eucalypts Yellow Stringybard (Eucalyptus muellerana) and Gully Gum (Eucalyptus smithii). Subtropical species such as White Bolly Gym, (Neolitsea dealbata) and Red Kamala (Mallotus philippensis) can be found in the rainforest of the lower foothills of Mount Keira. (Environment Illawarra, 1992)
The Mount Keira Summit Park includes the whole of the summit of Mount Keira. The plateau sloping to the west consists of a capping of Hawkesbury sandstone resting on the less durable rocks of the Narrabeen group and the upper coal measure. The massive nature of the Hawkesbury sandstone has resulted in the sheer cliffs on the seaward escarpment.
Plant species found in the Park include the protected species Waratah (Telopea speciossisma) and rainforest species such as Turpentine (Syncarpia glomulifera) and Pittosporum undulatum. Schlerophyllous species such as Eucalypus dendromorpha are also present. There are areas of tall open forest in gulley areas of the Park. These gullies contain rainforest elements that include tall Eucalypts and Turpentines, up to 30 metres. (Cox & Outteridge, 1990 p. 40)
The escarpment forests provide a habitat for a large number of fauna species, some of which are rare and endangered. The following species are listed in Mill's 1990 Flora and Fauna Study of Mount Keira:-
- Carpet and Diamond Python ( Morelia spilota)
- White-bellied Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus leucogastel)
- Emerald Dove (Chalcophaps indica)
- White-throated Needletail (Hirundapus caudacutus)
- Cicadabird (Coracina tenuirostris)
- White's Thrush (Zoothera diurnal)
- Crested Sprike-tit (Falcunculus frontatus)
- Rufous fantail (Rhipidura rufifroms)
- Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus)
- Gang Gang Cockatoo (Callocephalon fimbriatum) (Kevin Mills and Associates 1990, p. 6)
In the Cox and Outteridge survey of Mount Keira Summit Park only 2 species of small mammals were caught. These were Antechinus stuartii and Rattus fuscipes. One Brush Tailed Possum (Trichsurus vulpecular) was spotted and numerous scats and diggings from the long nosed bandicoot were identified.
A total of 26 bird species were also identified, in this survey, in a four hour bird watching session. Lyrebird scratchings were found over the entire park indicating a large population of Lyrebirds. A large flock (about 20) of Gang Gang Cockatoos came into the park in the early hours of the morning to feed. The bird-life sited in the Mount Keira Summit Park survey were:-
- Lewins honey eater
- Rufous fantail
- Brush Cuckoo
- Brown treecreeper
- Brown thornbill
- Laughing kookaburra
- White throated tree creeper
- Grey shrike thrush
- Wattle bird
- Golden whistler
- Powerful owl
- Wonga pigeon
- White headed pigeon
- Eastern spine bill
- Grey backed silvereye
- Satin bowerbird
- Sacred kingfisher
- Pied currawong
- Australian raven
- Varied sittella
- Superb lyrebird
- King parrot
- White browed scrub wren
- Grey fantail (Cox & Outteridge, 1990)